A backlink profile allows to globally measure the quality of website backlinks.
Search engines determine and analyze backlinck profiles to unmask SEO practices. If a backlink profile is made almost of comment and profile links, it is highly suspect and the site could incur sanctions.
Backlink profiles can also be established by backlink analysing tools that have features enabling to evaluate the quality of backlinks.
When a backlink profile audit detects potential problems with backlink quality, it may lead to link disavowal.
Note that backlink profile differs from profile backlink.