Statistically speaking, an URL split test is an A/B/n test by which the components to be tested are whole pages.
The different tested pages are hosted on the webmerchant servers and the marketer just has to indicate page URLs to be tested on the testing tool platform and to paste a code snippet on the page following the "conversion".
That test is called URL split test because visitors are randomly attributed an URL associated with a page version.
Several elements may be changed on each tested page, but each page is tested as a whole. URL split test can’t be compared to multivariate tests power.
URL split tests are very easy to implement but are mainly reserved for home page and landing page. They are not adapted for navigation pages within a website due to the different URL associated with each page.